Raw Female: Cooked Feminine

I am taking for granted that the reader acknowledges the existence of ‘prescribed norms’ for a woman’s body in modern Western society. I will discuss the irony involved when a woman falls victim to disciplines in the quest for ideal femininity by looking at the resulting skeletal, asexual body.

The female figure reflects cultural obsessions and preoccupations. Today, the body of fashion appears to be taut, small-breasted, narrow hipped, and of a slimness bordering on emaciation; it is a silhouette that seems more appropriate to an adolescent boy than to an adult woman. Susie Orbach suggests the ‘construction of fat as ugly and thin as beauty is so dominant and normalised that it often appears to be an unquestionable prescription of some law of natural aesthetics; that fat is ugly and thin is beautiful. Yet prescriptions of what constitutes a beautiful body have fluctuated from the Rubenesque to the Beanpole.’1 So is there really any truth in it? The disciplined quest for femininity seems to be a set-up; it requires such radical and extensive measures of bodily transformation that virtually every woman who joins this ’project’ is surely destined to fail. I believe that the current ‘tyranny of slenderness’ means that women are forbidden to become large or even remotely overweight as they must take up as little space as possible. In other words, today requires us, as women, to own a body that is lacking in flesh.

Is there any aspect of our bodies free from cultural imprint? To some extent, we make a series of choices to confirm or question our gender, for example, the clothes we wear, our make up, and the public toilet we use. We undergo a sculpting of the original body into a cultural form. Beauvoir suggests that the body is a ‘cultural situation’ and ‘existing one’s body becomes a personal way of taking up and reinterpreting received gender norms.’ 2 Benhabib and Connell pose this problem; ‘what happens when individual women do not recognise themselves in the theories that explain their unsurpassable essence to them?’ 3 Again, I am taking for granted that the reader understands the ‘essential femininity’ mentioned here. Beauvoir suggests that women have no essence at all and that what we call feminine is in fact ‘an enforced cultural option which has disguised itself as a natural truth.’ 4 This notion of disguise is paramount in the life of a woman. Despite the fact that each woman knows her own belaboured transformation from female to feminine is artificial, she harbours the secret conviction that it should be effortless. This ‘enforced cultural option’ is an area of concern for me. Michel Foucault argued that ‘more is required of the body now than mere political allegiance or the appropriation of the product of its labour. The new discipline invades the body and seeks to regulate its very forces and operations, the economy and efficiency of its movements.’ 5

Today the cult of this physical perfection often leads to obsession and neurosis. The seeds of the anxieties are often sown by photography, especially advertising imagery, which encourages us to compare our own imperfect bodies with the idealised forms of others. The quest for physical perfection, within the medium of advertising, creates an idolisation of the body. It is this ‘dark side’ to the quest for bodily perfection that I wish to discuss. The rising incidence of eating disorders and the increasing use of cosmetic surgery offers us the means to transform and improve our bodies. As women’s bodies are used to sell; the enormous demand for photographs of beautiful women for various promotional schemes has had the effect of creating a new kind of celebrity, one who is famous not for any particular talent or social attribute, but merely for being photogenic. ‘Women becomes the aesthetic object of contemplation, a sight, an object, a vision; the body of a woman connotes to-be-looked-at-ness.’ 6 Women are now spending a considerable amount of time on the management and discipline of their bodies. Susan Bordo writes ‘through the pursuit of an ever changing, homogenising, elusive ideal of femininity – a pursuit with no terminus, requiring that women constantly attend to minute and often whimsical changes in fashion – female bodies become docile bodies – bodies whose forces and energies are habituated to external regulation, subjection, transformation, ‘improvement’. 7

As the body is being restructured and reconfigured by scientists and engineers, some of the fundamental polarities of life – male and female, young and old, black and white, nature and culture, even life and death – appear to be breaking down, blurring together. Simultaneously, artists have come to reconsider the body, to rethink it. Artwork discussed in this thesis alludes to the cultural norm of feminine beauty and, by doing so, highlights the irony involved in pursuing the ideal. These female ideals have their male counterparts but anorexia nervosa is still considered to be a ‘woman’s disease’ so the invention of a ‘professional feminine beauty’ is obviously having an extreme effect. The problem with these images being fed out into the world via magazines, television, and countless other ways, is that the body of the imaged woman represents a genetic minority rather than the real majority. I believe that there are woman who go to extremes in an attempt to force their bodies into this unnatural mould as a result of these outside pressures. As anorexia has assumed epidemic proportions, it appears to be a pathological mode of a widespread cultural obsession. 90% of anorexics are women, 8 and, as the disease is virtually unknown outside the developed West, suggests the illness has some relationship to the social situation of women in modern Western Culture. (Morag MacSween’s ‘Anorexic Bodies’ offers accurate statistics)
Why now? Why do we find debilitating conflict when we might expect freedom and liberation? Why is there an epidemic suffering among women at this extraordinary moment when we are stepping out to claim a place for ourselves in the world. I can assume, therefore, the existence of a relationship between eating and the struggle for identity. It appears that a great number of women are surrendering in the struggle for self development and seeking refuge in an obsession with food. ‘When we scratch the surface of this obsession with weight and food we enter the hidden emotional life of a woman.’ 9

Anorexia represents a flight from femininity, a form of protest against the imposition of unattainable sexual and feminine ideals. The heroine in Margarat Atwood’s ‘The Edible Woman’ shows that she is doomed to submissiveness, even in her act of protest, her protest itself must be limited to her body – to a refusal of its appetites and its nature. A refusal to eat. A refusal to become a woman. In refusing to ingest the feminine role, the anorexic’s body may indeed literally deny her own sexuality as she loses body weight and ceases to menstruate.

As Noelle Caskey suggests, ‘the suffering anorexic body is inscribed with this ideological construction of femininity. As late as the 19th century, abundance of female flesh was valued in western culture as aesthetically pleasing. Something has drastically altered our perception of female bodies since this time.’ 10 I could now reel off another essay on the changes in the economic and social status of women and the element of fear involved in having too many choices today, but I will again presume to rely on previous knowledge. The issue to focus on here is that we, as women, are trying to embody femininity and masculinity simultaneously. What I am suggesting is that we are changing the balance of this ideal by stressing the development of our masculine side. Kim Chernin argues that ‘so far in our struggle for liberation we have become women dressed in male attire and not yet by any means, women clothed in the full potential of female being.’ 11

Susie Orbach suggests that anorexia is an ‘unconscious feminist protest’. 12 I would not agree that anorexia is ‘unconscious’ in its protest. There is an extreme level of self-control, discipline and will power involved in self starvation. ‘Anorexia is arguably the most stark and striking sexualisation of biological instincts; the anorexic may risk her life in the attainment of a body image approximating her ideal……. Rather than seeing it simply as an out-of-control compliance with current patriarchal ideals of slenderness, it is precisely a renunciation of these ‘ideals’. 13 This quote shows the conflicting objectives of the anorexic. Some women are trying to synthesise contradictory elements in their social position through the creation of an ‘anorexic body’. In learning to have a body, we also begin to learn about our social body – our society. Anorexia seems, therefore, to be a direct protest against this society by using the body as a form of communication. To deny oneself food, a protest so strong one would die in order to be heard. However there is an undoubted progression from the initial ‘strong minded’ starver to the clinically diseased, emaciated body of the anorexic. ‘Either appetite or the symptom itself come to control the anorexic woman as a force simultaneously internal and alien.’ 14 The act of protest is far outweighed by the devastating consequences. Having ceased to menstruate, therefore unable to bear children, the anorexic body is ‘desexed’.

In contrast to the removal of the body, Mona Hatoum in ‘Corps d’Etranger’ offers the internal matter of her body for view, allowing the penetration of an invasive camera to reveal her ‘insides’. This can be perceived in parallel to male exploitation of the female body. Hatoum herself commented on the ‘wonderful paradox between woman portrayed as victim and woman as devouring vagina.’ 15 She exposes her body in such a close and intrusive way that it actually becomes genderless. The anorexic body does not permit any such form of penetration therefore it is incapable of being wounded, damaged or exploited. Attempting to construct an ‘anorexic body’ somehow resolves gender contradictions, in being truly ‘neutral’. 16 ‘Feminine desire is created as responsive, it allows possession but threatens to engulf, the feminine body is constructed as penetrable; simultaneously weak and threatening, its imagery is of orifices: mouth, vagina, womb.’ 17

Eating represents a process of transformation in which one organic matter enters the body and is changed into another; meat, fruit, veg into blood, flesh, skin and bone. Anorexia involves a ritual of purification by refusing invasion of the body by external matter therefore retaining purity and essence, ‘the bare bones of her being’. 18 ‘Food, for the anorexic, is metamorphosed into a dark dragging force that threatens to take over her body to sink her under suffocating waves of flesh.’ 19 The ultimate self-abjective wish becomes the desire to completely eliminate flesh, to become pure. Nothing penetrates the body – orally or sexually, the body is sacred. Nothing invades the anorexic body, it is an impermeable container, empty, clean, uncontaminated, pure. ‘Not eating forms a barrier between the anorexic self and the threatening world against which the open feminine body has no defenses.’ 20

Flesh is the feminine body – the skeleton contains the anorexic self. Ridding the body of flesh, sensuous and sexual flesh, is evacuating the body from the male gaze. Some women artists have removed the ‘physical presence’ of the body to avoid historical subjugation of the female body to the male gaze. Lynda Nead, in ‘The Female Nude’, discusses anorexia and how the female body has become a crucial site for the exercise and regulation of power. ‘Food for literally millions of women is a combat zone, a source of incredible tension, the object of the most fevered desire, the engenderer of tremendous fear, and the recipient of a medley of projection centring round notions of good and bad.’ 21

Obviously there is an extent to which we can change our bodies to accommodate the often unrealistic feminine ideal, beyond these limits our bodies become sick, or disintegrate altogether. Susan Bordo argues that ‘through embodiment rather than deliberate demonstration the anorexic exposes these ideals to the point at which their destructive potential is revealed for all to see.’ 22

In previous writing I have been quick to assume that media images somehow force women to become anorexic. The reality of the disorder is far more complex than this. It is, according to Helen Malson, ‘a neurotic perfectionism’. 23 The anorexic body is admired, not as a sexual object, but for it’s self control and power. In losing the natural feminine curves, hips, breasts, and rounded stomach, the body becomes invulnerable, clean and as hard as the bones that penetrate the flesh. This body strives to escape the social inscriptions, the feminine rules.

As Helen Malson states, ‘perfection is being stick thin, it’s having your bones sticking out, haven eaten away at your muscles, being horrendously thin, very blue and very cold.’ 24 This statement is intended as a cynical analysis of the present ‘ideal’. However, I feel that most women would recognise it’s validity and, although the following quote would be unrealistic for some, it seems a possible outcome. ‘The further from the natural a female form, the more attractive it becomes. The further from the natural a female form, the more feminine it is.’ 25

Jana Sterbak’s ‘Vanitas; Flesh Dress for an Albino Anorectic’ plays on the absurdity to which our efforts would go to overcome the limitations of the body. She suggests we do this through dressing, by making and remaking ourselves at will to fulfil our desire for autonomy. She is using anorexia as the embodiment of this power. The dress, sewn together from 60lbs of raw flank steak, is ‘a grotesque perversion of a fashionable ensemble.’ 26 Clothing offers us a telling insight into who we are. We assess people quickly based upon appearance whether clothes, hair, skin colour, body shape. Society plays a role in guiding the wearer and the viewer. Jana Sterbak’s work explores the states of being between freedom and constraint. She makes us as the viewer explore what we consider private or public, inside or outside but most of all, grotesque or normal. ‘Using the dress as a metaphor for the culturally inscribed body, the artist has created an eerie fashion show.’ 27

As the dress hangs in exhibition it gradually dries out, becoming hard and wrinkled, similar to the effect of ageing upon our human skin. The work’s process, its gradual decomposition runs parallel to our route to mortality. The artwork reminds us of our fate and also mocks our current obsession with self- improvement. ‘By evoking the fashion world, Sterbak’s garments demonstrate that, at any historical moment, a ‘look’ represents the confluence of psychological, social, sexual and economic discourses that circulate around and delineate the body.’ 28

The glistening red steak with its marbled white veins resembles a flayed body. Human turned inside out. The work appears as both body and garment, it can be seen as either human or animal. The culturally constructed borders between these states are, therefore, no longer at work. Sterbak photographed a woman modelling the meat dress, equating with the treatment of women as meat, flesh, as a commodity. Our obsessive concern with self image is mocked by the use of the raw flank steak shown against the model’s skin. Sterbak portrays both medieval and contemporary attitudes to identity and aging. This is done through the use of the words ‘Vanitas’ and ‘Anorectic’ in the title. The word ‘Vanitas’ was used from the Middle Ages through to the 17th Century to describe paintings in memory of deceased persons. The paintings were used as reminders or our inevitable mortality. It was the baroque Vanitas tradition that had originally inspired Helen Chadwick’s ‘Of Mutability’ and other works of that period, including one called ‘Vanity’, in which Helen, ‘adorned like a Venus from a court painting’, 29 looks at the splendours of the flesh in the mirror; the implication is, she is learning that they pass. The Vanitas is an expression of doubt and enquiry into the nature of things and of the human subject.

‘In Helen Chadwick’s ‘Vanity’ the mirror reflects the narcissism, the conceit of the artist in the face of death – of the work of art as well as of the body. We are reminded that the transcendence of art, too, is momentary.’ 30

Sterbak’s use of ‘Anorectic’ in the title discusses the altered social and cultural fascination with the pursuit of idealised beauty. Sterbak’s meat dress, which has literally shrunk in exhibition, seems to serve as a visual diary of the anorexic. ‘Through her inability, or refusal, to live up to our culture’s demands of women for self restraint, ambition, maternal instinct and bodily perfection, she literally shrinks away from human existence.’ 31 The desire to be slimmer, taller, more muscular is the aim and objective of anorexia to take ‘the body’ as symptom for ‘the self’. As Noelle Caskey suggests. ‘anorexia is the cultivation of a specific image as an image.’ 32 This cultivation becomes the price we pay for the production of the body as a ‘desirable commodity.’ Sterbak’s flesh dress portrays a direct link between food and the body. The raw steak against human flesh announces a self in mortal combat. The dominant ideal of a slender body in 20th century culture proliferates an unhealthy relationship towards the intake of food. The anorexic body, as a result of self-induced starvation and intense self-discipline, personifies the desperate attempt at a control of a separate, personal world. ‘She’ is both victim and ‘perpetrator’ whose act can possibly be understood as a protesting hunger strike, attempting a political form of control, preparing to die for change. ‘The recent dress works by Jana Sterbak almost too perfectly illustrate the metaphor of the anorexic body – present through absence and therefore mourned.’ 33

‘Paradoxically and often tragically these pathologies of female protest actually function as if in collusion with the cultural conditions that produced them.’ 34 Power operates on the body through censorship and repression. In ‘Unmarked’ Peggy Phelan discusses the relationship between representational visibility and political power. ‘Reading the body as the sign of identity, is the way men regulate the bodies of women…… If representational visibility equals power, then almost-naked young white women should be running Western culture.’ 35 This power has created an idealised beauty which is a symptom of our culture. ‘The ‘power’ of Sterbak’s work lies in its ability to refuse final limitation as either essential body or invisible culture.’ 36 Judith Mastai writes, ‘my reading of this feminist artwork is that it evokes the absence, even the death, of the body of the woman. Within the refusal to allow women’s bodies to be subjected to the male gaze, a disturbing anorexia seems to have developed.’ She then asks, ‘is the representation of the disappearing, anorexic body a symptom of internalised mental regulation learned by women as a result of their socio-political conditioning?’ 37

Beth B offers a sculptural documentation of man’s inhumanity to woman – of the social reshaping of the female body, whether imposed or self willed as in cosmetic surgery and anorexia. Beth B’s works are traumatic and violent. The exhibition simply called ‘Trophies’ (implying a woman can be seen as a man’s ‘trophy’) includes a beeswax cast of a woman’s torso showing her ruptured silicone implants and a rib cage distorted by lifelong corsetting. ‘Trophies no.7; (Anorexia Nervosa)’, is a suspended wax body cast with full length mirrors surrounding it. ‘Beth B exquisitely presents what is very painful to view creating powerful tension.’ 38 The work has horrific anatomical specificity, depicting the suffering subject. Her works are records of sacrifice. They appear as accounts of the physical damage inflicted on women in the name of culture. ‘A series of multi-cultural and historical gender – specific body manipulations, designed for the purpose of ‘beautifying’ the female body.’ 39

‘A ‘case of ‘anorexia’ hangs like a deflated elongated skin, a yard of pump water, weightless and sad with smoothed body, feet and hands.’ 40 Sacha Craddock suggests, ‘Beth B mixes her metaphors and hides behind the broad sweep of badness to woman; the deformation of ribs, feet, face, breasts, vagina and death by anorexia nervosa.’ 41 I would have to disagree with this statement. Sculptural evidence of ‘remoulded’ women’s bodies, in order to fulfil some kind of cultural beauty criteria, brings to light the danger involved in this obsession.

For Greer Lankton, who died in 1996 aged 38, anorexia nervosa was an experience to make art from. The American artist created dolls and miniature still lives within her installations. Her works are direct expressions of her existence, she was a drug addict, transsexual and an anorexic. The doll-like mannequins are representations of self. Being reduced in both size and weight, they act as an autobiography of Lankton’s own body reduction through self starvation. ‘Her personal reductionism was evidence that her body was hers to decorate, destroy or diminish.’ 42 The dolls are glamourous but at the same time completely ravaged, they appear to be both victim and perpetrator, which is probably what Greer Lankton was trying to reveal about herself. ‘They are superbly disciplined creatures and have unusually distressed beauty.’ 43

In ‘It’s All About Me Not You’, a heavily made-up but hollow eyed mannequin adorned with Lankton’s jewellery reclined expectantly. The mannequin appeared gender-less – a reference both to the biological regression to ‘childhood’ brought on by anorexia, and also an adult version of the female dolls given to millions of children which though ostensibly ‘female’ usually lack any reference to nipples, breasts or genitalia. There are those in both public and professional sectors who believe the pursuit of physical perfection is often the cause of anorexia. But is it more likely to be a flight form the unattainability of perfection? The sufferer having admitted defeat, wanting nothing more than to shrink, to hide, to disappear. Anorexia is treated as an ‘extended example’ of how women both resist and are constrained by the cultural concept of the female body. It is examined as a strategy of resistance, which ultimately becomes its own prison. For it seeks to do individually what can only be done collectively – to challenge the construction and control of women’s bodies. I am not appropriating the anorexic body, nor am I trivialising it. It is, in some cases, a fatal disease, 15% of patients die. 44 Throughout this work, I am using anorexia as an extreme example of the encapsulation of women’s anxiety today. It is a multidetermined disorder with familial, psychological and possibly biological factors interacting in varying combinations in different individuals to produce a final common pathway. Above all, anorexia is saying something about what it means to be a woman in late twentieth century Western culture. The self starver is labelled as sick, damaged or deviant and solutions to the illness focus on the disorderly eater and not the representation of food, and consumerism in general, in our culture. ‘We must try to associate the self-starvation of a woman, or the consumption of three pounds of chocolate or the use of 144 laxatives a day, with the struggle for new ‘female’ identity.’ 45

‘Fetishism, argues Gamman and Makinen, is culturally gendered and for women, focuses primarily on food as its object.’ 46 As they believe that food can be the object of female fetishism, they discuss the cultural factors involved in the high proportion of women suffering from an eating disorder. They suggest, ‘women are being urged to consume more and more, as specific targets of capitalist consumerism; yet as objects of consumer fetishism in their own right, bodies of women are expected to be impossibly thin.’ 47 They feel that food fetishism will become more common if the tyranny of slenderness continues to frame women’s comprehension of their bodies, that the subject of food fetishism is only in the early stages of discussion but that it runs parallel to the emphasis on slenderness in today’s culture. ‘Food has become associated with pleasure, danger and the erotic by women who oscillate between engagement with and resistance to the thin ideal.’ 48 Women’s experience in contemporary western society around eating and not eating, around losing and gaining weight, being fat or thin, around being female has been the fuel for my investigation.

There are a multiplicity of socio-cultural concerns in late 20th century, concern about femininity and feminism, about the body, about individual control and consumption within a consumer society. Will the beautiful woman continue to serve as a symbol of feminine mystery to the man who desires her and of potency and success to the man who can claim her? And to the women around her, will she remain a symbol of the ideal against which they will be judged? The woman who checks her make up, who worries that the wind or rain will ruin her hair style, who feels fat (unnecessarily) so counts every calorie, who shaves every ‘unwanted’ hair from her silky smooth body, who manicures and paints her nails; she has become a self-policing subject, committed to a relentless self surveillance, a form of obedience. ‘Not only is dieting dangerous to our health – and in the extreme anorexic condition comes close to death – this self-destructive act actively supports the patriarchy which denies all women the right to grow…and look mature.’ 49 The politics of appearance are inextricably bound up with the structures of social, political and economic inequality. Until women, regardless of appearance, are valued as full and equal human beings we will continue to run up against formidable hurdles to self-respect and self-acceptance. Fighting the pressure to conform, attempting to hold one’s own against the commercial and cultural images of the acceptable is a crucial first step of resistance. Real diversity can only be a source of strength if we learn to acknowledge it rather than to disguise it. Only then can we recognise each other as different and therefore exciting, imperfect and as such ‘enough’.

Germaine Greer’s words apply to us all on our quest for improvement. ‘We are so brainwashed about the physical image that we should have that we are often apologetic about our bodies, considered in relation to that plastic object of desire (Barbie) whose image is radiated throughout the media. Until woman as she is can drive this plastic spectre out of her own and her man’s imagination she will continue to apologise and disguise herself.’ 50 To accept our bodies without the need for improvement can possibly be achieved by channelling the self control and discipline many of us have involving food intake and physical appearance, into the development of our minds. By rejecting the present obsession with body size, youth and physical transformation we can reconcile our body, mind, and soul.

An individual act of resistance against these social ‘norms’ is a step in the right direction but, for an anorexic, it is inevitably a painful one. I have stressed the danger in either falling ‘victim’ to these prescribed ideals of beauty, or by protesting against them, showing how the anorexic body becomes a negative statement about the original construction of the female ideal. We, as women, must learn how to read the cultural messages we inscribe on our bodies before we can begin a revision of them. To lessen the demand for prescribed beauty by choosing how to construct our own identity is the first step forward.

‘The UK beauty industry takes £8.9 billion a year out of women’s pockets – these industries exploit both a woman’s need for reassurance and her need to do something about the way she looks.’ 51 To remove the influence of the diet and fashion industries we have to recognise the commerciality within them. They are not there for our own good. We must learn to write ourselves, we cannot continue to have the choice of what constitutes beauty made for us. Paradoxically, the anorexic patient is an embodiment of this influence but also an extreme example of the denial of commercial power over the body as it denies all appetite, need and desire. ‘Energy, discipline, my own power will keep me going…. Psychic fuel. I need nothing and no one else, and I will prove it….. I will be master of my own body, if nothing else, I vow.’ 52

I have suggested that it is possible for anorexia to begin in, or emerge out of contemporary Western feminine practice. However, from my research and own experience, I realise that it is primarily a deliberate protest against this practice. The anorexic body, therefore offers us a realisation of two extreme polarities. It can be seen as physical evidence of the preoccupation with female ‘thinness’. Levels of dieting, calorie counting and exercise taken so far to abide by rules and dictates upon a woman’s body. Moreover, it acts as a radical contradiction to the importance of ‘physicality’ by ridding the female body of flesh, denying the ‘ideal’ and stressing the importance of mind and soul. The apparent solution, for the anorexic, is to withdraw from the quest for ideal beauty by removing the vulnerability to bodily exploitation. The prescribed ideal not only makes vast profits for commercial interests, it alters the way we see each other and the way we look at ourselves. It also leads some of us to self starvation and even death.

How we transform the raw of the female into the cooked of the feminine must be the choice of the individual woman. I have approached this subject with personal urgency. I feel the discomfort of being a woman in today’s society. I question whether I am attempting a flight from femininity or if I have admitted defeat in the pursuit of the ‘ideal’ body. Am I struggling to establish an identity, to resist the socio-cultural dictates upon my body, do I desire individualism? I cannot recognise myself in the theories that explain women’s ‘unsurpassable essence’ to me. Due to a prolonged period of illness, affecting my lymph glands, suppressing my appetite and energy levels, my body shape and size has altered dramatically, to the extent at which others are mistaking my gender. My body has transformed into a taut, slim, small-breasted, narrow hipped ‘masculine’ one. I have shaved my head, ridding my body of this supposedly feminine attribute and the commercial cleaning, treating and grooming that goes along with it. In a peculiar fashion, I feel empowered. In overcoming this debilitating illness I have focussed on mind and soul. My body has become a vehicle for their development. I can identify with the self starver. Whether a morbid curiosity or a therapeutic exercise, this ‘body’ of work has been an insight into myself. Self, mind; not image.

'inside me' light box by sarah misselbrook

Citation Notes

1 Malson, H

1998

pg105-6 27 Spector, N

1992

pg 92
2 Butler, J

1987

pg133-4 28 Spector, N

1992

pg95
3 Butler, J

1987

pg142 29 Warner, M

1997

pg3
4 Butler, J

1987

pg142 30 Allthorpe-Guyton, M

1988

pg4
5 Bartky, S

1997

pg129 31 Lypchuk, D

1991

pg88
6 Robinson, H

1995

pg140 32 Caskey, N

1986

pg184
7 Bordo, S

1997

pg91 33 Mastai, J

1996

pg142
8 Bordo, S

1992

pg99 34 Bordo, S

1992

pg102
9 Chernin, K

1981

pg1 35 Bordo, S

1992

pg10
10 Caskey, N

1986

pg177 36 Meskimmon, M

1998

Online
11 Chernin, K

1985

pg36-37 37 Mastai, J

1996

pg1443
12 MacSween, M

1993

pg75 38 Frankel, D

1996

pg99
13 Grosz, E

1994

pg40 39 Sargeant, J

1996

pg41
14 MacSween, M

1993

pg5 40 Craddock, S

1996

pg18
15 Mona Hatoum

1995

pg5 41 Craddock, S

1996

pg18
1 MacSween, M

1993

pg3-4 42 Jones, D

1999

pg7
17 MacSween, M

1993

pg3-4 43 Cotter, H

1984

pg43
18 Bordo, S

1997

pg100 44 Bordo, S

1992

pg98
19 Caskey, N

1986

pg183 45 Chernin, K

1985

pg20
20 MacSween, M

1993

pg249 46 Gamman, L &
Makinen, M

1994

pg10-11
21 Orbach, S

1998

pg132 47

1994

pg11
22 Bordo, S

1997

pg98 48

1994

pg11
23 Malson, H

1998

Intro 49 Chernin, K

1981

pg125
24 Malson, H

1998

Intro 50 Greer, G

1999a

pg292
25 Greer, G

1999

pg25 51 Greer, G

1999b

pg23
26 Lypchuk, D

1991

pg88 52 Chernin, K

1981

pg174

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